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Tag Archives: Cytopathology + More —

Cytopathology + More | Assessing needle core biopsy adequacy—survey of practices

May 2016—In the era of personalized medicine1 it is paramount to collect samples that will have sufficient material not only for an accurate diagnosis but also in many cases for prognostication or eligibility for targeted therapy or both. This may involve use of immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, microbiological culture studies, and molecular studies. Fine needle aspiration and needle core biopsies (NCB) are used routinely for diagnosis of mass lesions from various sites in the body, and both FNA and/or cell blocks and NCB have been used successfully for these purposes.

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Cytopathology + More | Anal cytology: life-saving potential at low cost

January 2016—Anal cancer incidence is on the rise in North America with rates of both invasive and in situ squamous carcinomas of the anus increasing sharply over the past several decades. While women have the highest overall likelihood of developing anal carcinomas, certain male subpopulations (namely men who have sex with men and those who are HIV positive) are at a dramatically increased risk of developing squamous precursors and carcinomas of the anal canal.

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Cytopathology + More | ICD-10: finishing touches or finding the road?

August 2015—To gear up for the change from ICD-9, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has provided updates and training and has kept ICD-9 changes to a minimum in an effort to build a strong crosswalk to ICD-10. Last year, the U.S. was given one more year to prepare, but that will not be the case this year. In fewer than 75 days, on Oct. 1, the U.S. will convert to ICD-10 coding.

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Cytopathology + More | Primary HPV screening, Pap-HPV cotesting: interim guidance and a retrospective study

August 2015—The Food and Drug Administration in 2001 approved the use of high-risk HPV testing to triage ASCUS Pap test results (reflex testing). Two years later the FDA expanded the indications for hrHPV testing to include its use as an adjunct to cytology in women over age 30 (cotesting). The rationale for age 30 as a cotesting cutoff point was that hrHPV is common in sexually active young women and most infections are transient and clear without medical intervention.

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Cytopathology + More | Telecytopathology’s potential starting to be seen

August 2015—There is a growing body of literature referencing the uses of telecytopathology in clinical care. Telecytopathology is the interpretation of cytopathology material at a distance using digital images. It can be subdivided into three basic applications: rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE), primary specimen diagnosis, and second opinion consultation. Although there is a long history of attempts at implementing telecytopathology for broad clinical use, it still has limited but important applications in patient care.

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Aptima HPV and Aptima genotype assays for triage of borderline squamous (ASCUS) cytology: CLEAR study

May 2015—The characterization of the HPV genome and development of techniques that have the ability to detect nucleic acids in cytologic specimens has had a major impact on patient management. The Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA Test, or HC2 (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, Md.), which uses probes designed to target the entire HPV genome, was cleared by the FDA in 1996. It was soon realized that determination of clinical sensitivity and specificity was essential to fully characterize assay performance and understand and classify correlation with cervical disease.

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Cytopathology + More | Latest guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology—a recap

May 2015—Pancreatobiliary malignancy currently accounts for about three percent of all cancer cases and six to seven percent of all cancer deaths, making it the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. Between 2006 and 2010 the incidence rate of pancreatic cancer increased by 1.3 percent per year and the death rate increased by 0.4 percent per year.1 The incidence of pancreatic cancer has tripled since the 1920s, likely secondary to an aging population, improved disease reporting, and possibly due to increased environmental mutagens2 such as smoking.

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Cytopathology and More | Negative Pap, positive hrHPV: what we know so far

May 2015—Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is considered the principal causative factor in the development of most cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. For this reason, screening algorithms that include testing for hrHPV are part of the new cervical cancer screening guidelines set forth by the American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology.

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Cytopathology and More | Inside the 2014 Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology

May 2015—The value of standardized terminology for reporting cytology and histopathologyhas been essential in our work and important for patient care. The Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology, put forward in 1988 thanks to the pioneering work of Diane Solomon, MD, and Robert Kurman, MD,1 saw unprecedented adoption around the world. The Bethesda System, or TBS, led to a number of significant downstream events ...

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Cytopathology + More | For cytopathologists, MOC exam pass rates and options in 2014

January 2015—Last year was the first year that the American Board of Pathology offered Maintenance of Certification Part III subspecialty examinations. Sixty-four diplomates took a pilot exam in 2013, but it included only anatomic pathology and clinical pathology modules. The secure examination may be taken in years seven to 10 after enrollment in MOC, with no more than 12 years elapsing between examinations. All 2014 examinations were given in Tampa, Fla., but there are plans to offer testing in other locations in the future.

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